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Since the turn of the millennium, uncertainty has become the only constant of the now irrevocably complex era. Recurring shocks, from terrorism and financial market collapses, to mass migrations of the impoverished and the novel Coronavirus pandemic, world changing events are occurring at an ever-increasing pace of transformational metacrisis. They are leaving behind the foundations of the old order and normalcy in ruins. We find ourselves helpless between two epochs, in the twilight of transformation. It is getting harder to understand what is going on, while the image of the future is already completely blurred. In the storm of centuries…


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Benjamin P. Taylor shared his thoughts in a post recently about a situation well-known to everyone when asked to act as a middle person and ‘sort things out’ by intermediating between people. As a middle person, you must meddle in other people’s affairs with the aim ‘to keep everyone happy… until you burn out’. The middle place is perceived as weak, a space of vulnerability.

In this context, he mentions Barry Oshry (2012) who wrote about the ineffectiveness of middle managers. Oshry defined the middle as a location ‘between a rock and a hard place’. The middle layer is the…


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There is a very persistent view among followers of systems theory, arguing that systems can understand and resolve complex problems in science and communities and organisations. Everyone can affirm that successfully operating complex systems are everywhere, from transport and energy systems to information systems. Complex systems prove every day that they can effectively overcome the gap between individuals and the communal as well as between ordered and disordered features of our everyday lives. The ability of systems to control certain complex issues is therefore beyond doubt. …


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Meso level reasoning has prehistoric roots. It is manifested in shamanic traditions thousands of years before being introduced to Western civilisation (Pont, 2004). Heraclitus of Ephesus (in the fifth century BCE) placed humans on the intermediate level between gods and apes because he thought that humans had some characteristics of both.[1] For Aristotle, man is the link between matter and spirit (in Sedláček, 2011). Ironically, Pythagoreans themselves saw their mission in organising a temple or a city as a mesocosm isomorphic to the macro order of the universe (Fossa, 2011). In Plato’s ideal state, a polis is a mesocosm that…


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In Nostalghia, one of Andrei Tarkovsky’s most poetic and introspective films (1983, Mosfilm and Gaumont), the first of his works accomplished in emigration, the main character, Russian emigrant writer Andrei Gorchakov travels to the Tuscan countryside to study the works of an eighteenth century Russian painter. There he befriends Domenico, a local eccentric, who is persistently trying, but repeatedly failing to cross a mineral pool in his village with a lit candle in his efforts to save the world. One day Gorchakov visits Domenico at his home, where he notes the paradoxical equation ‘1+1=1’, inscribed on the wall of the…


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The triadic organisation of various aspects of the world can be found not only in most diverse spiritual, religious, and cultural traditions, from prehistoric times to the present day, but also in a variety of scientific and philosophical systems. Different authors developed different approaches to ordering triadic structures. Particularly important for our essay will be Hegel, Peirce, Freud, and Lacan, whose approaches nevertheless share important characteristics. Understanding the basics of their ideas is a prerequisite for deciphering methodological differences and similarities between them.

German philosopher Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) is renowned for the triadic construction of his concepts. The triadic form…


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The Western culture developed an eccentric attitude to nothingness, otherwise one of the most intriguing philosophical concepts. Only with Nietzsche, Heidegger, later with Derrida and many others, the West has seriously come to deal with the question. This is, however, more than millennia and a half after philosophers in the East. But when it started, a postmodern avalanche of nihilism could not stop until dissolving the idea of modernity and enlightened rational man. Before there was no nothing, now the West is drowning in it.

The classical, as well as modern West, developed a general antipathy toward a concept of…


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The present generation finds itself caught in many valid but incommensurable explanations of reality, which gives rise to perceiving society as complex, essentially indeterminate, where the rational clashes with the irrational. Caught between different modes of reasoning, a whole generation loses power to understand itself (Geertz). We are like the short-sighted faced with far-reaching challenges, like a traveller who explores new lands equipped with old maps (Benhabib). …


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There is a standard belief that socialism as a social formation failed in Eastern Europe in comparison with Western capitalism. Unfortunately, this is not true. It did not fail in relation to something better but due to failing to accomplish own mission.

Socialism failed because it did not enhance the ‘negation of the negation’ with eliminating the barriers of the System and producing a better life for all. Socialist elites actually preferred to recognize ideological defeat than to work harder to fulfill their empowering mission because only in ideological defeat their elitist status was preserved.

Socialism failed from precisely the…


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Stringent quarantine in a larger part of Europe was imposed during March and May 2020 in response to a pandemic of a novel coronavirus. Quarantine enforced sudden, shocking intermezzo when only the sounds of silence could be heard. ‘Silent Spring’ arrived, but in the evocative inverse, with people, not birds, missing from streets and parks, as Rachel Carson predicted in her memorable book (1962). Humanity eventually paralysed itself before it could overrule against nature.

The invisible virus took over for a couple of weeks to collect its human toll and leave the present generation a sobering message: the ignored are…

Bojan Radej

A methodologist in social research from Ljubljana; Evaluator. Slovenia. Author of "Social Complexity" Vernon Press, 2021.

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